Jack Anderson, an American newspaper columnist, speaking at the St. John's University auditorium. Anderson's speech was on the public's right to know. Speech followed by Anderson answering questions from the audience.
Read the Text Transcription of the Audio.
On behalf of the complications committee. I would like to welcome you to beautiful plus Cent jobs Auditorium. Colerain would like to get some money to improve it. So I was asked to put that in as a commercial. in the history of American journalism The tradition of muckraking has played an honorable and honored part. our political system depends on journalist who are capable of cutting through bureaucratic red tape and government. Jargon. He's About the pain of the news man. like the sword cuts into directions the more we become dependent on the news man for his information the more also we provide the potential. for damaging rumor and innuendo Jack Anderson has lived with this Paradox for the past 25 years as a colleague of food Pearson, and now as the author of his own column. Tonight he will speak to us on the issue of the Public's right-to-know. Following his remarks. There will be the possibility questions and if you still wish to speak to mr. Anderson, we can regather in The Faculty Lounge in the main quadrangle. My pleasure to present to you jack Anderson. Thank you. I listen to the introduction of grateful embarrassment. I'm impressed by the array of microphones. At least it's nice to talk before microphones. You can see. I think my favorite politician. if I had one Was the lead vice president album Barclay? warm and witty gentleman at Will Rogers sense of humor when you asked him a question you always you never got an ordinary answer from him. I remember bumping into him once in the Capitol Corridor Z just come from presiding over the Senate and all I wanted to know is whether the Senate was about to adjourn for the day. that was typical of Willow typical of Alvin Barkley, well, he said scratching his head. Bill Langer referring to the late senator from North Dakota. He said Bill Langer and has a bowel pain and he thinks it's an idea. He says what he stands the pain-relieving we got to get out early. He always had. He always had that way. I'm responding and I was asking him about his I asked him about once about his. Re-election campaign after he came back to the Senate having served as vice president. He returned to his native Kentucky and ran for election to the Senate barnstormed up and down the state. How old is audiences Spellbound he was a great orator. impact album Berkeley died at the podium taking off on oratorical flights and I think that's the way he would like to God. When I asked him about this campaign, he said he got along pretty well until he wound up at an Indian Reservation. He said he gave the Indians one of his best amrhein winders. But they listen to him in total and Stony silence. He said he got more response out of the back end of the wall. Then he got out of the Indian. Will Barclay was a resourceful politician? So he he abandoned the speech and he got down to business and he said that he used his influence that the reservation. Not this time the Indians responded by chanting in unison. Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. Berkeley was baffled by this. But he went on he said he thought he might also be able to arrange for the construction of an additional room to the school building. Again, oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. Bill puzzle But I'm willing to give up. He said the new health education and Welfare Department. That's it. Then just been created was inhabited is that at the upper Levels by friends of his? And he thought he might be able to arrange for these friends to bring an 18 bed hospital to that reservation. when all this time the Indians louder Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah. My Berkeley told me he left the place. Totally perplexed over this unique response until a little later as he was pouring the reservation. He said he started across a horse pasture and the guy grab them by the sleeve and said be careful not to step in the foyer. Well, this is the year of the Hoya. And I came here this evening really not so much to shovel it. As to sort it out a little for you if I could. I didn't really come to tell you who to vote for. But if I can shed a little light, I'll tell you what I know about the two candidates. I might even toss in an opinion are there. George McGovern Richard Nixon, I don't know about nothing about since they were Congressman since they were in fact rather obscure congressman. Real estate McAllen. I think that if you were too if you knew was Senator well enough. To talk to him confidentially in to get from him and confidential opinion. We probably wouldn't be quoted. Democrat or republican if you were to ask him. Now this would have had to been a year or two ago before I got them got in the presidential politics. senator who in this the entire Senate would you say? Is the most decent? man I think the average Senator, I think most of them would have responded. either Michigan's fill hearts or South Dakota George McGovern Is he George McGovern's a very decent? honorable, man George McGovern is a warm and compassionate man. I've seen tears come to his eyes over the problems. over the plight of the property of people and I read the other day. That some Vietnam veterans story. Brought tears to his eyes and I guess the old George McGovern still there because he can cry for people. And he feels a great compassion for them. And he's a thoroughly warm and decent human being. What you're saying the presidential bug when it bites you? Brings on this strange malady this strange presidential fever. And it does strange things to people. I would have said the year your two ago. The George McGovern would have been incapable of telling a lie. I think today the Presidential candidate is capable. certainly of exaggeration But because he is so honorable because he is so decent because he is so a man of such personal Integrity be very awkward for it. Because very awkward for him. the weasel Where do exaggerate? where to play politics and he does it so poorly. But he looks bad when he tries to when he moves from conviction to. when he departs from his basic political beliefs and tries to play presidential politics, he's awkward. He's he's he's realities he doesn't do it. Well. The Eagles and the fair is an example. Now the George McGovern, I know that purse the personal the human George McGovern. would have just instinctively thrown his arm around Eagles in the shoulder. And say I support you a thousand percent. Because that's the kind of man McGovern is and that's how he would have responded and he would have responded really without thinking that's what he would have done. Man, the political McGovern would have said wait a minute. This might not be so smart. And then the long agonizing debate between the personal George McGovern in the political George McGovern and then as you know the political hey less compassionate day. a less decent man would have had no trouble just dropping Eagleton from the ticket, but George McGovern would have trouble doing that and therefore he comes out looking bad when he does it. Richard Nixon very private person very few people have been able to penetrate his turtle shell to find out what kind of an individually is. What happens if one of my very close friends is extremely close? The Nixons And he has succeeded in penetrating the turtles job. And he tells me and there's no reason to disbelieve it. This is something I wouldn't know for myself that I've no Nixon. for 25 years But you don't find these things out about Nixon unless you're extremely close to it, and it's extremely close friend of his. Tells me that the real Richard Nixon the very private Richard Nixon the very personal Richard Nixon. Is a warm. and a decent and a gentle but most of all a very shy person does this sound like the Richard Nixon, you know? Is he there? There are really in the sense to Richard Nixon's. There is a political Richard Nixon. Who Rose to power My slashing and slamming and slicing himself has called his campaigns his early campaigns that brought him to power Rock'em sock'em campaign. He gets hard. and Is anyone who hits hard and I should be in a position to say that? He just hit back. But you see it was Richard Nixon the politician. And when he talks even when Nixon discusses politics him, there is no subjected activates them the when he discusses politics. He speaks of Richard Nixon in the third person. He talks about Nixon as if you were someone else. because in the way he is and it was Richard Nixon the politician that hit hard. It was Richard Nixon the politician that rock them and suck them. But when he hit hard he got hit back. And it was that very shy. Not very warm personal Richard Nixon who got hit back. And the attacks upon him hurt. And he was injured by them. And he brooded over them. I'm so this very warm is very decent Richard Nixon. Didn't quite separate. the two He felt hit he felt hurt. And he was hurt. because some of the attacks upon him or unfair But he didn't relate them to the attacks that he had made on others that were also unfair. Some of the attacks upon and were abusive. He didn't relate them to some of his attacks which were abusive because you see it. Was that other fella that Richard Nixon the politician who was unfair who was harsh. Who was sometimes abusive? But it was that Richard Nixon the person who got hit back. A very decent person. My friend tells me that there is for example of blank the student who just got out of medical school has no not no idea. That is tuition in all his expenses were paid by the president of the United States. Because that very warm and that very personal Richard Nixon didn't want that now. And it was a secret contribution. What kind of a president of a Confident Woman? very orderly so orderly in fact, everything is compartmentalizing even has a day for thinking Wednesdays on Wednesdays he stepped aside. On Wednesdays, he sets aside or he pushes aside every appointment. That is an absolutely essential crisis the parking lot. do the old house at the old executive office building settlers that little Hideaway has their leans back and a great black leather chair feet up on the desk. Nothing, but the paperwork in front of him and the dictating machine and Casey has struck with inspiration and wants to record it. And he pours over the paperwork of the presidency and he requires his age to submit every problem. Maybe confronting the nation in that point. Reduce it to writing. how to spell it out in great detail And to give him every possible option every possible solution. That they can think of because he's his option papers and he studies newspaper. almost memorizes and he emerges from these Wednesday sessions brainstorming sessions. He quotes them. He emerges from these brainstorming sessions. the master of his homework the master of the paperwork cotyledon Farm probably better informed than almost any other president we've had. But he dislikes. the spark and The Clash the personal confrontation. When people seek an audience with him. Who advocated point of view to contend with him to argue that some something he has done is wrong or something that he hasn't done. He should do if he avoids these confrontations. He can't tell me anything. I don't already know every point that he wants to make I've already studied and considered. He can add anything to my not. Why should I go through this? experience until he doesn't solutely forced to buy political reality enssaro Richard Nixon airport emerges as the complete Master of the paperwork for the presidency. But he doesn't understand the human other cards. He doesn't understand the intensity of human feeling. He'll know that a majority of Americans will support him will go along with him stay on the Vietnam War. But that that mine or he doesn't he doesn't understand that that support is paper thin. That their attitude is well your president then that's your problem and you solve it. But that the opposition though the polls may not show. That Minority that disagrees with in the intensity of their opposition that doesn't come through in the paperwork not always. until you ham I think two opposites running for president November 7th. You had George McGovern who feels and understands the people. But doesn't always understand the problems and doesn't always come up with practical pragmatic Solutions. Who is less confident? And you have the man you have Richard Nixon who is totally confident totally orderly has a full understanding of the problems. That little understanding of the people. Will the choice is yours to make? They are exactly opposite. What choice would I make well the president? In my opinion of President of the United States the leader of the Free World how to be a man who can Inspire us. Richard Nixon does not inspire me. George McGovern does not inspire me. Linda Johnson did not inspire me. John Kennedy Yes, I think so. He wasn't the most confident president we've had. He's been one of the most inspiring. I'm not sure I recognized it at the time. Maybe it had to maybe it was the assassination. Although I think I knew it before then. I think I know it when he went to Berlin. I think I know what the day that he gave his inaugural address and I happen to be in the Pentagon was invited by a group of generals to sit and listen to him and it wasn't the general in the crowd when the podium and who didn't have a curled lip when he went on. And by the time he had finished. after he had said not the country can do for you. But what you can do for the country. After he had finished. In that room the Skeptics in Salix, Altona. yeah, I think I know what that certainly knows what he went to Berlin. West Berlin island of Freedom surrounded by East Germany and the fact that he's Germany is a concentration camp Dimond dramatized by the fact they had to build a wall to keep their people in. And this little island to Freedom was threatened back when John Kennedy was president. This little while this little island and freedom freedom. East German said they're going to take it over. directions said we got 275 division says they're going to take it over to we're going to back him up. Now these people in West Berlin had only one hope one prayer one place to turn it was the United States. it was in that situation that John Kennedy blue and you know everybody in West Berlin must have turned out to hear him. Mass shooting at Great Plaza because in Liberty's perhaps their property a few of them their life. And they wanted to know whether this man could save them and they turned out to listen to him. Ethan Ethan Richard Nixon He would have given the best speech in speech writers go to prepared. He would have done it from a resonant voice with a sweat trickling down the side of his face. Making everything perfectly clear. What are the Ben Lyndon Johnson? Goggles down the end of his nose. Eyes at half man. Looking like a river boat gambler. They would have either one of them would have given a great speech I suppose. the John Kennedy he had a speech you put it aside. Looked at that mass of people that see your faces. How do you say red in German? I am a Berliner. Stephanie No more no more. He had that way. They would have collected in prison to West Germany. And I think I know what that I think maybe I know it when he went to Paris is a very green very young. President brand new in the office first place. He went outside of the United States as president. There he was confronted by. The hobby The Arrogant to go look down that great bulbous nose of his upstart of an American president. And the Press reflected this de Gaulle condescension. But you see the press in Paris. Was very favorable toward Jacqueline Kennedy because she had studied at the sorbonne. And she spoke fluent French and had French Chase. I'm sorry President Kennedy facing his first very sophisticated. condescending Parisian idea Stood up. Let me introduce myself. I'm the fellow who came to Paris with Jacqueline Kennedy. That was the right thing to say in a woman. Well, he could even handle Jacqueline. Nobody else has been able to do that. I shouldn't I'm going to tell you. There was a time. Remember, maybe you don't because some of you are not old enough, but yes, we should the time that Jacqueline Kennedy was riding to the hounds out the Virginia Countryside. At her horse threw her. And she landed in an unladylike Heap on the ground. And would you believe it? There was a photographer there? And the photographer recorded that historic event for the world to see and they saw it on the front page of Life magazine. The president was on the west coast at the time got news that her that his wife had been thrown from a horse got on the phone at once. A friend of mine was in the room with him only other person there heard only his side of the conversation but didn't really need to hear the other side because he could tell from the tone of Jacqueline's voice. When the president reach her that her bones were quite intact, but her indignation at an all-time high being photographed. And she was indignant. And the president is listening. And the sliders to the twinkle in his eye. Just a trace of a smile to lose weight. Finally well Jackie. When the first lady falls on her ass, it's news. well I certainly do it after he was shot. I went down to Brazil. Friend of mine are my host. He said I want to take you out into the country and show you something I didn't have time. I had a commitment to meet a flight to catch you. I told him I couldn't do it in the urge me and I said no, I'm sorry. I can't. Finally I said looked wouldn't you tell me what it is you if you wanted to show me it's going to have to do I just don't have time so I didn't really see this. And I can only report what he told me I would have seen. But I believe it. He said while I was going to take you into our country. how to do the countryside Who are poor villages? And I would have invited you. To select any one of those poor Villages and we would stop. I did my poor Village. select any one of the humble Hall And we would not get that home. and before you were invited inside I would tell you what you would see what I see. He said in the humble home if your choice. in the poor Village of your joy You would see on the memo that Humble Home the picture of Jesus Christ. a picture of John F Kennedy I think I would have. Can you imagine? Richard Nixon's picture over there Whoever becomes president. I change comes over him. Oh. Richard Nixon remains that very decent that very warm that very shy person Richard Nixon wants to do what's best for his country is country. Ham like gangling. Call Texan from a dirt farm. but when they get up there on the mountain top when they taste of Fowler when they believe that exhilarating that heady atmosphere. Change comes over them. We elect those men to be our servant. We pay them with our taxes. What the president of the United States? He's waited on by servants. He is Fond on bicycling. When he wants to go somewhere there weights without his doorstep black bulletproof gleaming limousines to whisk him wherever he would go. If the traffic is heavy. Great. Helicopters swoop down from the sky drop into his backyard to lift him up. And over the traffic jams that we lesser Mortals must cope with and watching. reject all luxuriously appointed ready to fly in a jet speeds anywhere in the world. Traffic is stopped at the airport when he takes off so that his plane won't collide with somebody else's. He has it in his fingertips instant communication. He can speak to anyone anywhere in the world at any time or on the moon and we got someone up there. Now we elect him to be our service. after a little of this He doesn't feel like it's moving. The people around them some of them are words. Instead of feeling is if they should serve us. They begin to feel that we should serve that. And this great bureaucracy that we have created to serve this. He's turning every day more and more into a Frankenstein's monster. And the people that we have that we are paying to serve us everyday expect us a little more that these bureaucrats don't. Issue some new regulation to increase their power over is not a day goes by that. They don't put on some new form for us to fill out. In order to make their jobs easier in order to make their lives simpler in order to make their work more convenient. supposed to make but increasingly they expect us to serve them. And our constitutional forefathers knew this would happen our constitutional. They understood the government by its nature is oppressive. They understood that the man who Governor whoever they may be. Will tend to want us to serve them will tend to push his down. Lord it over it's because that is the nature of God. And so they created a watchdog. They gave us the First Amendment and up. First of the the very first amendment the first of the tan freedom of the press. And they said James Madison said it Thomas Jefferson said it the Press must be the watchdog. the Watchdog on government Thomas Jefferson put it best. Let me introduce you doing. In case you students haven't heard about it. In the words of John F Kennedy. It was the late President Kennedy who invited all the Nova. To the White House for dinner one evening. I need greater than with words something like that. She said ladies and gentlemen. Probably never before he said in the history of the White House have so many Brilliant Minds. So much brain power been assembled here at dinner time. with the possible exception when Thomas Jefferson dined alone. It was Thomas Jefferson the wise Thomas Jefferson who said it best. He said if I had the chew. between government without a free pass and a free press without a government. I wouldn't hesitate to choose the latter. Will be understood he understood that the Watchdog and a free Society. He is more important than the government itself. Because every government by its nature seeks to stay in power. Those who govern you are no different. They want Power they want to keep it they want to gain it. and in order to stay in power the first thing anybody got any dictator who takes over a country is his first move. He muscles depress. He seizes the Pratt. He control takes absolute authority over the flow of information to the people because any of them at the staying power must control the flow of information to the people. Must manage the news. now in our country in this great democracy with the 200-year history. Liberty and freedom we have a free press the Press is not owned by the government. The Press has the right to contradict the government. But make no mistake about it. The people in this country are just as eager to control the flow of information. Justice determined to manipulate public opinion if they can get away with it. Dictatorships can do it easier because they own the Press. Let me tell you how it happens in Russia. They meet in secret then they playing in secret and they arrive at their decisions in secret. Then I guess there's no other way that this can be done in any country because you can't really make your you can't plan strategy in front of the TV cameras. So they do all this in secret. After their decision is reached after the strategy has been adopted. After course has been set. They look over there secret work. And they say one to another. Now, what do we tell him? Well now we can't hide the fact that cold winter rains have flattened the Harvest in the Asian territory. We can't really hide that. But the fact that we were unable to harvest the Grain in the first place because our farm machinery is broken down for lack of spare parts. The fact that the cold and wet brain that was harvested much of it. Molded because we didn't have drying facilities they to dry it. we don't want to tell him that that more than even some of the dry grain we couldn't ship to the big cities because our trucks and broken down. We won't tell him about that or over there in Egypt. That was someone dearly committed. Got kicked out. Will tell him that we left by voluntary. my voluntary agreement We want to make that look as good as we can. Here are the good things in other words wheel telling me. the bad things the embarrassing things sensor Now, how do you suppose they do with the white guy? the policymakers meet in secret And there they plan their strategies there. They reach their decisions and when the decision is made when the strategy has been adopted when the course Has been sighted they say to one another. Now, what do we tell her? And Henry Kissinger said though this little boner that I fooled. We don't want to tell him about that. Richard Nixon says that blunder. That could cost us votes. Let's not advertise that. And they both agree look at the india-pakistan situation. Well now. after all Bangladesh most miserable of country Man who swept by floods has been lashed by Cyclones overrun by conquerors. And the poor the miserable the pathetic the tragic bangali zoo in the habitat land. That's swampy lab moldy Lane. like us they would like to be the masters of their own thing. like I said I'd like to be free. And while they were part of Pakistan, they agitated and finally obtained an election and they won the election. And the Pakistani dictator throughout the election. Jail their elected leader. And send troops in to suppress the electorate and the troops were so enthusiastic in their work. That according to neutral observers and Midian bengalis plead their homes. In the Indian in order to escape with their life. Now who side do you suppose we would br. You know with our 200-year traditions of Liberty with all our Pious pronouncements about self-government. With the Statue of Liberty is our symbol. Where do you think we would stand? We were on the side of the Pakistani dictated. And Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon look that over. and they said we don't want to tell him about that. Until the president called into his office last December 6th. The leaders of Congress now mind you the president isn't the only master of our Foreign Affairs. He's supposed to eye many how many matters get the advice and the consent of this and what did he tell them? How can I give advice and consent if they don't get their back? What did he tell him? Well now I know transcript wiscap. But I spoke to three of the leaders. Each one of them not knowing I talked to two others told me the same story. This is what Richard Nixon said. He said gentlemen. You understand, of course that we can't conduct our foreign policy in public. You understand that we have to have Secret. But gentlemen I can assure you in this india-pakistan crisis. We are neutral. Following day Henry Kissinger meeting members of the press this time a transcript was good. Said how you have heard these reports. You have heard these rumors that we are pro-pakistan. These reports are inaccurate. He had just come up. from the basement of the White House We're in deep dark secret. He had held a meeting with representatives of the state department the defense department and the Central Intelligence Agency, and he had said that the president wants to feel toward back is bad. He had said to them. Richard Nixon has the impression. He is president of the now if you're not going to be tougher on India, we will do it here for you. The president's been getting me help every half hour. Because you're not Tough Enough against, Indiana. This is what? And then he comes up. There's any tells the press that reports were pro-pakistan on inaccurate and the president. So, how do they do it in the White House? They take the good thing. The favorable thing those things that makes them look good and smart and why? And they release that to the public. the rest of it the errors the embarrassments the boners the blenders. classified what is the difference? Between the way they do it at the White House. And they way they do it at the Kremlin. What is the difference between censored and classify? Weather difference is at the main difference. Is it here? We have a free press. And the Free Press has a license to dig out the secrets in the publish them in the Free Press represents the government instead of the governors. That's the basic difference. But have no doubt about it. If the government could stop us if the government could suppresses if the government could shut us up. How do I know if it's right? Look at the Pentagon papers when the Pentagon papers were released and have no misunderstanding about the Pentagon papers. They were historical. They contain no military or national security. Daniel Ellsberg in fact was an expert on security and he went through them and deleted if you think that he thought might possibly jeopardize our security has now released after having gone through them just as Ellsberg dead now, they picked out two or three minor additions that they deleted but basically the same paper no national security info when the New York Times And The Washington Post began publishing President Nixon stop the Press He got an injunction that stop publication. Now he was overruled the Supreme Court overruled it. But if he had had his way. He would have stopped publication. He would have stopped. And what would this is mean to you? It would have meant that anything. The government does not want you to read. Could be stopped. from being printed by the simple Act of classify That's the power that he wanted for the government. What's the difference? except the difference in semantics in the Soviet Union Here we say classified and that's what they tried to do. Why? the Pentagon papers embarrass the Democrats the Pentagon papers were to buy the Lyndon Johnson. Richard Nixon doesn't mind embarrassing the Democrat. But he wanted. He did not want a president. That would permit the press to publish document. That the government didn't want public. And he tried to stop the presses. He failed. Thanks for the Supreme Court, but he tried to do it and it did succeeded. He would know as I have the power to stop you to stop me from prison. Just stop your newspapers from pretty and it stop you from Reading anything at all that he did not want you to read. And as of this moment, there are 20 million classified. 20 million anthem experts who are familiar with our classification system say that 90% of them termination in those classified documents is information. You're entitled to half. It's more than a disinformation that you should have many of those classified documents. Are distributed on a need-to-know basis that is they go only the people who need to know? What about who do you think has the most important function in this government? Who do you think has the most important job? My young citizens, it's you. You have the most important function the function decision. That's the most important function in this week country. That's the most important job. Your job is more important than the president. And you haven't need to know. You not only had a right to know you haven't eaten enough. And they are keeping information from you that you need to know. and your need-to-know should have priority over the they can all of you together. You need to know and they're keeping it from they call it security. Every one of those documents they have to build big fat. When they move them they have to move them with an escort. military fellows with cider and you try to get one of those secret documents Declassified. Well, I was about three weeks ago that we got a report on it off Hitler Declassified with alarm guard guarding it every minute. 429 What possible security to the document on it off Hitler had? And it took his 29 years to blanch did lose and to get a Declassified through authorized me. Until I print them without bothering to go through that. Is this risky? Yes, it's risky. Sure. I suppose that there are times when we print Stories We ought not to print. I suppose there are times when maybe the stories. Remind me my judgment is wrong because I do try not to probably say anything that would hurt the national interest. Maybe I've been wrong. Set timer to. But no story I've ever published. No story published by anyone that I know of cost $50,000. No story I ever published got 220 million American dollar. That's what the Vietnam War crossword. and one of the reasons, we now know thanks for the Pentagon papers because we weren't it was published the information across the line. It was the fan here to put out the truth. Why can't tell you I can assure you I can guarantee you if we had all the facts about the time we have done any different. I think we would have I believe we would have but who knows who can turn the clock back in from turn the calendar back? I don't know for sure. But one thing I do know you were misled. You were not told the truth. You were not given the fact. They were censored they called it security they called it classified with you. They were sent you those backward. And I could spend an hour giving you examples of it. I'm going to pass that over. unless you're interested During the question-and-answer period. Lyndon Johnson didn't tell you the truth. He didn't give you the fact. Now you can just take that for what it's worth because he didn't even tell them why. Lyndon Johnson wanted to do what was right. Lyndon Johnson wanted to do what was bad. I didn't like it, but I knew it. I don't know somehow you offended me I and you should you should know that. Evaluate what I say about him when we used to go. He used to bring us in those people that he thought might be able to influence public opinion. It'd bring them into that Oval Office one of the time. And he would brainwash us. In at 8 a.m. At Oval Office First place he was an overpowering huge physical man, and you put The Prestige of the presidency on top of that. He was an awesome. Thank you. And you come in there and he'd throw that you jam with an arm around your shoulder and he would crush you to his books and you get a tattoo in from your ear. And he would let you have it. Are Pockets always bulging with poles? He had polls on everything and secret papers need to pull them up and lay them before your looks, and you'd go out of their saying yes. I remember talking to and I remember asking you once about the bombing in North Vietnam. And I said, mr. President. What about the civilians that are being killed? Now I'm going to quote him exactly. So this is presidential language. He said to me looking down upon me with great condescension. He said Summit and brick don't bleed. That he pointed to a glass. I'll do that. He said see that Glide. He said they can drop a bomb in that black. And he said they don't drop the bomb on a shithouse. Would you know I went out of there saying yes, mr. President? And you get about three blocks in the White House? And then you say hey, wait a minute. But I went into seeing one day it was about evening. Now he's tried everything on me that man can try and the years that I've known him and I knew when he was sincere. And this evening and this particular evening. He was sincere. Is there a Lyndon Johnson talking? It's about daisuki ushered me wave me in wet and we stood alone looking out the full-length French Windows into the Dust. President Johnson talking, I think more of themselves into me. You know, I always had the toughest part of this job. You sending young men at the prime of their lives on missions knowing that some of them are going to come back. He said they take off for North Vietnam. At one of the morning, aren't I? Well, he said the doctor in Lady Bird, they don't they don't like me to stay up after 1. And they won't let me keep an alarm clock by the bed. But I don't need an alarm clock to take those boys 2 hours to finish their mission 3 in the morning, I'm awake. He said I reach over and I grab the telephone by the bedside. I asked for the situation room when I say hi Irma boys. and if many of them are missing he said I'm responsible for their deaths. He said I believe. But their deaths were going to say bye. their sacrifices makes 8 million I pray about it. He said but it's hard to know what God wants you to do. Is he going to do go to bed? And because he thought he knew he felt that. He could be more effective. And he could be more effective if he was supported by a United. and so he only told us. Those facts which would win our support he didn't give us the whole start the united we be stronger. He believed he was doing right. He was wrong. He was tragically wrong. He told me he had trusted it. If only he had given us the fat. Maybe we would have done the same thing. I don't think so. Are there any case it would have been our decision more than his alone? And in this democracy, it should be our decision because we are. Let me wind it up so you can have some questions, but there is one thing I want to tell you. Let me take the time to give you one more story because it's an important story and it will dramatized the kind of world. That we live in in the kind of world. You're about to inherit and you have a need to know. So let me tell you this final story is the most frightening story. It's the most certainly the most dramatic story in human history. There's never been a time in history more fearful more frightening. And it happened in your time. It happened in 1962 and you heard some of the story but you haven't heard it all. At that time the Soviet Union had 1,000 InterContinental missiles in the Warhead of each one of those missiles was packed more destructive for it. And all the guns fired and all the bombs dropped by both sides during World War II. Well that we had learned a little from World War II we have learned not to keep all our ships at Pearl Harbor. Until we had free agent literally thousands of Pearl Harbor. And we had stashed away. Our destructive weapons are nuclear weapons in these Pearl Harbor is all over this country and around the world so that any nation that would dare to strike the United States. Would have to destroy all these Pearl Harbor. Or we'd had enough destructive power left to devastate that country. When I when this electronic age, it doesn't take the Soviets too long to discover where I Pearl Harbor die. We even rotate them but even rotating them doesn't help because they very quickly learned where they are. They had just about enough intermediate-range missiles to Target all our Pearl Harbor's oversee. They didn't have enough any kind of metal missile. The hit all our Targets in this country. And so what do you think they began to do? They began to plant their intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. That brought many more of our targets within range of the terrible Warhead. That became a threat Bay menace to our security. John Kennedy was in president, and he called together is top experts his most trusted advisers. to consider this new threat and I meant every day for three weeks. He called them his prices Club. And the members of the crisis Club included, for example, every Ambassador who would serve in the cradle and since Khrushchev come to power Nikita Khrushchev was in the Premier and each one of these ambassadors Warren the president that Khrushchev was an impulsive man when he took his shoe off and pounded that I said, that was a real proof job. That was no way whatever you do. They warn don't push him in a corner. Don't push him around don't back him into a corner. Don't get him a little Elbow Room little room to maneuver a little time to think. How was the anonymous advice? Will they examine all the intelligence are all the position papers everything and we have excellent intelligent. and I gave all this information to the president and then he had to come down and make The very lonely decision that only he could make and it came down and face the crisis clubmasters decision. He said gentlemen I have decided upon a boycott. NIU students must know that a boycott is an act of War. President of the United States and just said that he decided upon an act of war against the Soviet Union. How many went on to Ixtapa did he says now to make it easier on the Soviets to back down? We'll call it a quarantine. He said we're going to put a quarantine around Cuba and we're going to stop anymore Soviet missiles from coming in. And we're going to call upon the Soviet Union to pull the missiles out that they've already planted there. A friend of mine. It was a member of the crisis Club interrupted. He said mr. President. Does this mean we're going to stop Soviet ships on the high seas? The president said if it should become necessary we will. My friend said mr. President. What do they want stop? the president replied will follow the procedures of the sea. Who far away and if we have to we'll open fire. My friend said mr. President, we bought the War of 1812 over Freedom of the Seas. What is the situation were reversed? What if the Soviets tried to stop our ships on the high sea? Maybe even open firearm. What would you do? on that John Kennedy. That over a little this was his response. He said it would depend upon the circumstances. Is it most likely? I would have to take military action. My friend said that the president what makes you think the Soviets won't do the same. Weather a lot of Monday morning Statesman who after it was all over said they knew all along that Khrushchev would back down. Any more than the present did? Man who had the information the man who had all the advice. This is what he said. He said I don't know what the Soviets will do. Before he went on the TV and radio to announce his decision. tissue that very carefully worded ultimatum to the Soviet Union John Kennedy head on his dad National Intelligence estimate of the best intelligence. He had on his desk a National Intelligence estimate which two glands. the risk of nuclear war by morning and before he Are bases around the world were on Red Alert? Already Continental missiles were cranked up and ready to buy. Polaris submarines on station ready for combat ip52 there. Bombay's pregnant with h bomb in the ass. So they wouldn't have to waste time taking off. Then he issued his announcement. And as he spoke, that was a Soviet past Forest loaded with missile headed for Cuba. And after he had finished speaking that Soviet escorts didn't even slow down. John F. Kennedy call The Joint Chiefs end of The Situation Room in the basement of the White House. And here's exactly what happened. He took a thumbtack and he pressed it into a map of the Atlantic. And he said gentlemen when that dashboards reaches this point. interception the cast for reach the thumbtack. President call The Joint Chiefs back into the Situation Room. He slowly withdrew the dump at in the back. Can you move it over? A jammed it back in. And he said to the Joint Chiefs gentleman. Let's give them a little more time. This is as far as we can. Let them go on those Soviet ships reach that point. You're going to have to talk. And I don't feel beautiful just a few miles from the second thumbtack. When it was a crackling out of my sky they received a coded message. And after they had decoded the message. I slowly turn around. And they went back to Russia. Nova in the state department Dean Rusk Secretary of State turn to a couple of his subordinates and said gentlemen, we've been eyeball to eyeball. And I think the other fella just blink. This is the world we live in. This is a world you will hear it and you have a need to know. This is a year for you to take some action. This is a year for you to participate choose your leaders wisely. Choose strong and sensible and stable man for all offices if you have a right. My men who like to see Captain it with the height of the storm that she kept it was running an oil tanker. Okrika cumbersome tanker in the waves in the winds got we're pounding on the ship threatening to break it to Pieces worst storm ever been through and the sea captain step down from the bridge and he went down into the hold any picked up a club and he began smashing a cockroaches. That have been such a nuisance. We need leaders who are not obsessed with the cockroaches in army. China crisis leaders and stay on the bridge their eyes on the horizon their feet on the deck. Words like Liberty and freedom justice Brotherhood democracy. I'm sure they mean to you as they do to me. More than words in it Fourth of July. Speech. I choked up physically at the thought of losing my freedom thinking. Do you have any questions? It is. Let me say that I was much too long-winded tonight. There must be people with homework if I will not be offended. If you have to leave those who want to stay. I'll try to answer your questions the The Washington Post did correctly report. But there has been a massive campaign of sabotage. political sabotage against the Democratic Party There is no question that it is true. We've had bits and pieces of the story. It's been we've been putting it together like a jigsaw puzzle it began with the arrest of five men at gunpoint. At 2:30 in the morning. in Democratic party headquarters They were wearing surgical gloves and carrying burglar tools. And we have bit by bit piece by piece Washington Post picking up most of it. I picked up a good part of it New York Times just picked up a bit of it. We have put together these bed soon. We have discovered. that this operation was financed out of a slush fund that the Republicans collected it varied from 350000 to $700,000. at one point seven hundred thousand dollars of it was collected in the offices of the president of Pennzoil in Houston, Texas and was stuffed into a suitcase $100,000 of it raised in Mexico the rest raised in Texas. the cash and some checks and some and some other Securities We're stopped into a suitcase. Do vice presidents of Pennzoil carried it to a waiting plane? Fluid Washington. It was delivered in the dark of night cuz the Republican headquarters. No receipt to Ash no receipt together. This was the money that was used to finance this sabotage operation. It's a pretty sordid affair. It's a pretty ugly story. There's no nice way to Describe it is particularly. Ironica. Because you seen it was the same the same Nixon people who came to power the same committee with many of the same people you see, this is John Michels group. the same people who in 1968 campaign for Richard Nixon on a platform of Law & Order the same people who made Law & Order the Cornerstone of their 1968 campaign. The same people who were then put in charge of Law & Order John Mitchell ran the justice department and then he was put in charge. Once again of The Campaign Committee and he took the same people with it. Now there been different people all along. But it's the nucleus with the same people. And what did they do? Broken answered Democratic party headquarters, that's a violation of law hat. The telephones are democratic party officials. That's a violation of the law. Stole documents from democratic files. That's a violation of law raise money in Mexico for a presidential campaign. That's a violation of law. Now that's a pretty sorry record. They are Law & Order Administration. It please. please why did Nixon go for Pakistan? I have seen most of the documents in that case. I have study them carefully and nowhere in any of the documents that I saw is the reason spelled out. So I can only give you my own speculation reading between the lines I get the impression. That at that time President Nixon was awaiting a visit to PK. He didn't know what kind of reception he would get there. Our best intelligence couldn't quite till it. He thought he knew but there were differences in Peking over whether to give the president the brush-off or whether to reach some kind of an agreement. He thought that peeking was more important to him than New Delhi. He wanted to go into Peking under the most favourable auspices. Peking was Allied with his Lambo bad. Peking was Allied with Pakistan. It could be that way. It's not spelled out that this was one reason he decided to support Pakistan. Another reason may be a close personal relationship with President Khan. Oh my who had come to the White House that had a very friendly visit and that and head exchange extremely friendly letters. So there may have been something personal in it in the other Gandhi. The Indian prime minister is also coming to Washington and head out talk to not foxed it and he was sore about it and he didn't like him do it again. So that could have had something to do with it and finally. Henry Kissinger Who is Yara modern Prince Mentor met her neck? Believes in a balance of power and met her Nick would say that if two countries are Allied. If two forces are Allied and one is the stronger we should kill toward the weaker India and the Soviet Union were on one side Pakistan and red China on the other clearly Indian the Soviet Union. We're up here Pakistan and China down here. So matter neck would have said you'll get in or the vice versa you get in here and bring the scales in the balance throw the force of the United States on the side of the weaker. Those are all possible reasons. I don't know which if any of them are true. Why might the Mitchell have stuck to her Story 3 or 4 times subsequently. She has not retracted one word of it on at least one of those occasions. He was attending a republican rally. So at the it would seem to me that that would been the time for her to retract it if she was going to but she has stuck by the story. She has I think a refreshingly candid. A tongue and I'm inclined to believe. That this must have occurred doing I do know that she had the guards and she named that they were or security guards. I do know that they were getting a little nervous over her. impromptu calls to the Press and so it figures I am a little surprised they would be that abusive. But it's possible. Yes, please. I can only guess at it. I think that the public. Does not like what has happened? I think that the the most American people don't like Richard Nixon. But I think the most American people are concerned have a greater concern about George McGovern. They don't understand him. They don't quite trust him. They feel I think an awful lot of Americans feel that he's going to take their money away and give it to the poor. Other Americans feel that his radical they had their uneasy over him. This is a ham Nation. We are have people and have Nations and ham people don't like to take big risks and they don't want to take a risk in favor of Montgomery. but meanwhile, that means they have to vote for Nixon whom they don't really like And so I think that in just making it having made the decision that they've got the vote for Nixon. They have psychologically and emotionally swallowed a lot of things. They don't like about it may have already adjusted psychologically. They have already adjusted emotionally to the fact that they're going to vote for Nixon. because he's of the He's the least of the two evils. They have decided that having made that decision that commitment having already gone through that emotional experience. I'm deciding that they're going to vote for somebody. They really would rather not vote for then an atom scandal doesn't they've already been doubled and they the added Scandal. I think then it's just another one of the reasons that they would have voted against them. But they've already made their decision and I think some of them will be influenced back to the other way by the new scandals, but they've already committed themselves. So this just adds to it now. I know psichiatra psychologist, but that's the way it looks to me. Please please. I would expect that. He would have the same effect on McGovern that it's had on past president. It has the bigger effect on something on others. And I think the two worst Presidents that we've had as far as being power hungry have been Richard Nixon and Lyndon Johnson. I think Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy. We're not as bad. So it has different effects on different people. I think that right now George McGovern really believes that if he became president, he would not abused power that he would have a wide-open Administration and that he would keep these campaign promises. You see. I know George McGovern. I know he believes he would do that but once he got and I'm not too sure because he is human like the rest of us. We are all human and because we're human we tend to do you want to present the bedside? We cannot have a neighbor wonderful neighbor great neighbor always returns the sugar when he borrows it. Loves his children good to his dogs. Great guy, but he got involved in an automobile accident not too long ago. You want to hurt his version of it? Now there was some kids and some other people the neighborhood try the accident. And it didn't happen at all the way to my neighbor said it did. Presidents are just a human. And they're inclined to tell it like they would like you to believe it happened rather than the way it did George McGovern good man honest man believes now that he would be different but he threw his human and I think he would not be that different. please Well, from what I have seen of the stories that a yes or a number of stories that killed. Muskie. But these stories of these incidents have not been attributed to the political Sabotage by the next in Campaign Committee the things that really hurt my ski like the connect letter which receive such wide publicity and made it look like he had condoned a racial slur a number of incidents that really hurt him badly in the New Hampshire primary and and effect did his showing their and his poor showing their led to that incident where he wept on the doorstep of the editor who have been so unfair to the editor up there with keep picking up all these things that we run through these where are we now know that these were forged letters that these were funny things that were being done by The Campaign Committee. And because The Campaign Committee was greatly concerned at that time actually musky was leading Nixon in the polls and they were concerned and they wanted to knock him off. And with the help of the editor up there, they said they didn't. It was at the brass. I think yes, it was the union leader up there. Which was publishing this stuff will use the publisher up. There was very anti Muskie very pronexa, and he was probably seeing all this stuff and it certainly did hurt my ski and when the union leader probably slipped the rest of the press would pick it up, but we didn't Forge the documents you say we didn't plant the false stories. We didn't make the midnight calls all over New Hampshire that were made, but it was that those those worthy. That was the sabotage crew the dirty Squad. How's The Campaign Committee? and please what first place I have never made up a story of my life any story that I have been wrong about it has been wrong because the sources were wrong. And this case the we we have a rule in our shop that we will not go with the story until we have enough witnesses to prove it in court. We consider three witnesses to be adequate in the Tom Eagleton story. We had three Witnesses these were people who said that they had seen the photostats of the traffic citations. One of them was the former state trooper who said that he had actually participated in collecting and photostatic and distributing them to 80 distributed them to three people and two of the three we were able to recall $0.03 but at that time would reach two of the three and they acknowledge receiving them. So we had three witnesses to these traffic citation. So these photostats and seen the original let you in the photos that Three Witnesses. We normally considered to be enough evidence to present in court the reason I retracted the story in spite of the fact that we had these three Witnesses it was because the story got misrepresented because the story got blown out of proportion because the story was it's pretty so it wasn't very long through misunderstanding this representation. I think mostly through the emotionalism that they have been generated over this issue. It wasn't very long that the public had the impression that I had accused Tom Eagleton of being an alcoholic. Levi never said anything even remotely like that and it's hard for me to retract the story that I didn't say, but after all it was my story that had led to those charges after those public charges into a do the impression very widely held I found never even remotely said he was but I certainly didn't have any evidence of it. I don't even have evidence that he was ever guilty of drunk driving. Only only thing that I ever said was that he had that there had been some citations that have been photostatic and we Trace those citation. So what I had said was was basically but it led to a great and unfortunate and unfair misunderstanding and I was indirectly responsible because I think in retrospect it was poor judgment to go ahead with with with with of even a carefully-worded story was a carefully-worded story, but it was bound to have been misunderstood and it was immediately misunderstood. Until I retracted it for that reason. What the hell what role did it play? I don't know both Tom Eagleton and George McGovern who said that it did not play any role in their final decision. I think it may have I think they were being kind to me but I have I've been with both of them both of them the other day. He was asking who made a public statement that this had nothing to do with his decision. Tell if that's the case you didn't. Credibility I thought at the time because I have been told and had heard all along that that eagle and had a drinking problem. He made a public announcement that he did not have a drinking problem. So I started investigating it find out whether he did or not and I had heard from so many people that he did have a drinking problem. I want to try to find out I wasn't the only one investigating and I'm a point on Earth are there were literally dozens of newspaperman investigating the same story for the same reason. And I went ahead with it and I wasn't the only one that went ahead with it. I was the only one that located these citations but the st. Louis Post-Dispatch a very fine newspaper quoted a former state trooper. Excuse me State Highway official is saying that and they didn't identify and they just quoted him as saying that he personally it stopped Eagleton three times and it's his Troopers. It stopped Eagleton the number of other times now that was the same Louis Post-Dispatch. They came out with it about the same time. I did mine attracted more attention because I'm better known than he is in the Post-Dispatch and because also I think perhaps because I had just finished producing documents. To prove when when when I disputed land when I rub some stories about India Pakistan closing what Henry Kissinger been saying and Secret? I guess I'm just announced that I had taken the quotations out of contact. Until I just published the whole documents. I released the whole documents to the Pratt. I provided the context and let the public judge for itself with her eye taken him out. And I done the same thing on the ITT if people had the impression that when I gave when I used to start a that I was prepared the document it and back it up with all these documents and I think the public was disappointed when I said I had Trace some traffic citations that I couldn't produce them. Hannah catch with another reason when we live in an imperfect society, and I think maybe we had to close on this note and those who wants to who want to go to the what is the faculty Lounge will finish up and talk to those who really have more questions, but I think that you will find that Let me put it this way. I've seen governments around the world. I've talked to leaders of governments around the world. I have not found any government anywhere. That offers its people better opportunity the finer life. more freedom less corruption than we do. In almost any other country in the world you was a citizen have to pay off the government in order to get a little personal things accomplished. You want to if you have a problem. And you go you have to go to the government and you have to go to the bureaucrat and you have to Shell out some cash. Or you won't get any action. Not in this country you go. Try showing you've got a problem before the federal housing Administration or before Social Security Administration in the Veterans Administration you go talk to a bureaucrat there and you shall have some cash he's going to report you and you're going to be prosecuted for an attempt to drive. So don't try it because the level of corruption in our government. Is far far less the level of Integrity far far higher than government anywhere that I have had an opportunity to take a good look at. But yes, we have wrongdoing we have corruption and it is my duty to dig it out and do it supposed put some sunlight on it sound like the best disinfectant. And that's what I tried to do, but don't lose faith in the government because of that take some heart at least know what government is bad but its necessary bad, but they're necessary is Winston Churchill put it in put it back democracy said Winston Churchill is the worst possible except for all the others.